The Leicester Medical Book Society was founded in 1800 as an association of local doctors, to provide a medical book lending library.
By 1846 the society had become known as the Leicester Medical Society.
In 1973 the books were housed in the new medical school building, alongside the Clinical Sciences Library of the University of Leicester. Ownership of the books remained with the LMS. The rare books (mainly published pre-1850) of the Society were later moved into the Special Collections of the University of Leicester in order to offer better storage and retrieval facilities.
Included within the Leicester Medical Society collection are the archives of Joan Walker, C J Bond and Ernest Frizelle. The Library and Archive of the Society reflects the interests and concerns of the local medical profession in the 19th and 20th centuries.