Female-line family tree
Every one of us, males and females alike, inherit our mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from our biological mother. However, only females, through birth, can pass this onto subsequent generations. So, Richard III inherited his mtDNA from his mother, Cecily, Duchess of York (née Neville), and this was passed on by his sister, Anne of York. Two all-female lines of descend where identified, descending respectively from the sisters Barbara and Everhilda Constable, both great-grandchildren of Anne of York. The two present-day mtDNA donors, Michael Ibson and Wendy Duldig, are direct descendants from these two sisters: Michael from Barbara and Wendy from Everhilda. Consequently, Wendy is Michael’s 14th cousin, twice removed! Both are great nieces, several times removed, of Richard III. Read about the female-line family tree in more detail (PDF, 32kb).