School of Psychology and Vision Sciences

Publications and outputs


  • Krockow, E. M., Cheng, K. O., Maltby, J., & McElroy, E. (2023). Existing terminology related to antimicrobial resistance fails to evoke risk perceptions and be remembered. Communications Medicine, 3(1), 149.
  • Krockow, E. M. (2020). Nomen est omen: Why we need to re-name “Antimicrobial Resistance”. JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance, 2(3).
  • Mendelson, M., Balasegaram, M., Jinks, T. et al. (2017). Antibiotic resistance has a language problem. Nature, 545, 23–25.


The main project outcome will be a carefully designed, tried and tested set of metaphors and terminology related to antibiotic resistance that can be used by governments, health organisations, charities, media and doctors internationally to raise awareness about antibiotic resistance, inform patients how antibiotics work, and change the way we use antibiotics. The project will also provide an example of bottom-up, stakeholder-driven research methodology for developing future variations of health risk messages related to antibiotic resistance to respond to local needs and challenges (e.g., in the context of different languages).

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