Injuries to the mandible, rib and pelvis (injuries 9-11)

9. A tool mark on right mandible

This mark consists of a number of fine striations which appear to have been caused by a sharp weapon.

Wounds to the lower jaw and right cheek (injuries 7-9)

10. Cut on right tenth rib

This cut was caused by a sharp knife or dagger. During the battle the torso would have been protected by a solid armour backplate, so this may represent a post-mortem injury, perhaps delivered as a ‘punishment’ or occurring when the armour and clothing was stripped from the body.

A cut on Richard III's right tenth rib

11. Cut on inside of pelvis

This was produced by a sharp weapon such as a sword or dagger. The weapon was thrust from behind, entering the right buttock and penetrating right through the body. Such a blow would be difficult to inflict during battle, when the king would have been protected by his armour. This injury may also have been inflicted post-mortem, as an act of humiliation.

Cut on inside of Richard III's pelvis

Cut on inside of Richard III's pelvis

See how Richard III died and more about reading the bones