Dr Fernando Schlindwein

Reader in Bioengineering

School/Department: Engineering, School of

Telephone: +44 (0)116 252 5053



Dr. Schlindwein is a Electrical/Electronic Engineer (Chartered by IPEM) with an MSc in Biomedical Engineering a PhD in Surgery and a DSc in Biomedical Engineering. He has some 40 years’ experience in signal processing / real-time signal processing applied to Medical Signals. His current research focus is on cardiac arrhythmias especially Atrial and Ventricular Fibrillation. He has been awarded more than £3M in grants (as PI or Co-I) and supervised 16 PhD students and more than 40 MSc students as principal supervisor. He is a Reader of Bioengineering School of Engineering and an Honorary Reader in Cardiovascular Sciences (Medical School) at the University of Leicester England UK. Dr. Schlindwein has an h-index of 27 (Google Scholar); 100+ journal papers 200+ refereed conference papers 3 book chapters) - Available from my webpage and public services (ResearchGate / Google Scholar/ Scopus AuthorID). Dr. Schlindwein's current research interests are real-time digital signal processing of biological signals with particular interest in ECG analysis and cardiac arrhythmias.


I have an active MRC project worth £1M+ ""Development of a successful novel technology for sudden cardiac death risk stratification for clinical use - LifeMap"" with Prof. G. Andre Ng. On ECG analysis the emphasis has been on signal processing of the electrical activation of the heart especially the atria during Atrial Fibrillation in close collaboration with Professor André Ng Dr. Xin Li and Dr. Tiago Paggi de Almeida (Cardiovascular Sciences Leicester Glenfield Hospital) Dr. Frederique Jos Vanheusden NTU UK and researchers from Brazil (Dr. João Salinet ABC University Dr. João Luiz Dihl Comba Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Dr. João Paulo do Vale Madeiro Universidade Federal do Ceará) Dr. Anita Ahmad (Malaysia) Prof. Maria de la Salud Guillem Sánchez Universitat Politècnica de València Spain and my current PhD students Mr. Mahmoud Ehnesh Miss Saaima Ahmad Mr. Marko Mäkynen Miss Hongfei Chen and Mr. Ismail Rumi. A full list of my publications is available on my public profiles at Research Gate or Google Scholar.


(0) Tiago P. Almeida*, Xin Li*, Sidhu Bharat, Arthur S. Bezerra, Mahmoud Ehnesh, Ibrahim Anton, Ibrahim A. Nasser, Gavin S. Chu, Peter J. Stafford, Takashi Yoneyama, G. Andre Ng, Fernando S. Schlindwein, Dominant Frequency and Organization Index for Substrate Identification of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, submitted to CinC2021 - Computing in Cardiology 2021, Brno, Czech Republic, 12-15 September 2021.

Joao Salinet, Ruben Molero, Joel Karel, Fernando S. Schlindwein, Miguel Rodrigo, Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez,  Omer Berenfeld, Andreu Climent, Brian Zerger, Frederique J. Vanheusden, Jimena Gabriela Siles Paredes, Rob McLeod, Felipe Atienza, Maria S. Guillem, Matthijs Cluitmans, Pietro Bonizzi, Electrocardiographic imaging for atrial fibrillation: a perspective from computer models and animal experiments to clinical value, Frontiers in Physiology - Cardiac Electrophysiology (IF: 3.367)., 30 April 2021.

Xin Li, Gavin S. Chu, Tiago P. Almeida, Frederique J. Vanheusden, Joao Salinet, Nawshin Dastagir, Amar R. Mistry, Zakariyya Vali, Bharat Sidhu, Peter J. Stafford, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G. Andre Ng, Automatic Extraction of Recurrent Patterns of High Dominant Frequency Mapping during Human Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, Frontiers in Physiology, (IF:3.367), 12 March 2021.

Tiago Paggi de Almeida, Xin Li, Sidhu Bharat, Zakariyya Vali, Gavin S. Chu, Peter J. Stafford, Michela Masa, Flavia Ravelli, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G. Andre Ng, All roads lead to Rome but some may be more convoluted - differential behaviour in persistent atrial fibrillation termination during catheter ablation, T26th Annual International AF Symposium, USA, 29-31 January 2021.

Tiago P. Almeida, Diogo C. Soriano, Michela Masa, Flavia Ravelli, Arthur S. Bezerra, Xin Li, Gavin S. Chu, Joao Salinet, Peter J. Stafford, G. Andre Ng, Fernando S. Schlindwein, Takashi Yoneyama, Unsupervised Classification of Atrial Electrograms for Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, IEEE TBME (ref. TBME-00585-2020), (IF 4.288),, 29 August 2020.

Xin Li* , Tiago P. Almeida, Nawshin Dastagir, Maria S. Guillem, Joao Salinet, Gavin S. Chu, Peter J. Stafford, Fernando S. Schlindwein and G. Andre Ng, Standardising single-frame phase singularity identification algorithms and parameters in phase mapping during human atrial fibrillation, Frontiers in Physiology - Cardiac Electrophysiology (IF:3.367), 21 June 2020, .

X Li, B Sidhu, T P Almeida, M Ehnesh, A Mistry, Z Vali, V Pooranachandran, G S Chu, P J Stafford, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G A Ng, Could regional electrogram desynchronization identified using mean phase coherence be potential ablation targets in persistent atrial fibrillation? EP Europace (IF: 5.231), Volume 22, Issue Supplement_1, June 2020, euaa162.013,, Published 18 June 2020.

Tiago P. Almeida, Xin Li, Diogo C. Soriano, Fernando S. Schlindwein, G. Andre Ng, "Pitfalls in the definition of complex fractionated atrial electrograms for atrial fibrillation studies" Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, (IF: 3.475),, 4 December 2019.


Signal processing associated with Biological signals.


Signal Processing; Engineering Design and Experimentation

Press and media

Application of Engineering tools to treat cardiac arrhythmias.


Associated Editor of Frontiers in Physiology; External Examiner of the University of Lincoln


. Tiago P. Almeida* Xin Li* Sidhu Bharat Arthur S. Bezerra Mahmoud Ehnesh Ibrahim Anton Ibrahim A. Nasser Gavin S. Chu Peter J. Stafford Takashi Yoneyama G. André Ng Fernando S. Schlindwein Dominant Frequency and Organization Index for Substrate Identification of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation submitted to CinC2021 - Computing in Cardiology 2021 Brno Czech Republic 12-15 September 2021. . Long Chen Zheheng Jiang Tiago P. Almeida Marcus O. Panchal Jakevir S. Shoker Fernando S. Schlindwein G. André Ng Huiyu Zhou Xin Li Graph Attention and Convolutional Networks for De-tecting Inter-class Cardiac Disorders from Multi-lead ECGs submitted to CinC2021 - Computing in Cardiology 2021 Brno Czech Republic 12-15 September 2021.


BEng (1st class Hons) MSc (distinction) CEng (IPEM) SFHEA PhD DSc
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