Professor Paul Baines

Professor of Political Marketing


Paul Baines, Professor of Political Marketing in the University of Leicester School of Business, is a highly-regarded expert in applying marketing thought to business and government communications in order to improve their effectiveness.

Professor Baines’ research into government communications and propaganda/counter-propaganda is particularly relevant in addressing the threat of fake news in relation to COVID-19 at a time when the speed and accuracy of information is critical to the safety of the global population. 

Away from academia, Paul is a councillor for Charnwood Borough Council, providing him with insight into community concerns about the virus and an understanding of how local councils can respond to residents. 

Professor Baines’ work further supports the economy by assessing the impact of COVID-19 on businesses and how marketing can be used to counter the threat to revenue. As Non-Executive Director of the Business Continuity Institute (BCI), Paul is aware of the ways in which companies are responding to the challenges presented by COVID-19 and how best to make contingency plans.


I am particularly interested in how messages are received by audience segments, especially through emotional appeals. Current research work includes evaluating the effectiveness of police social marketing/counter-terrorism communications and exploring the effectiveness of guilt-elicitation in marketing communications. I am presently supervising PhD and DBA work on political marketing to youth audiences and dynamic pricing in the Croatian telecommunications market.

My main areas of research are as follows:

  • Political marketing and propaganda, particularly from segmentation and positioning perspectives.
  • Guilt and fear appeals in marketing communications.


Selected recent publications

Baines, P.; Brady, M. & Jain, S.P. (2022). Guest editorial: Pandemic Aftershock - The challenges of rapid technology adoption and social distancing for interactive marketing practice, Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 16(1), forthcoming.

Black, I.; Baines, P.; Baines, N.; O’Shaughnessy, N. and Mortimore, R. (2021). The dynamic interplay of hope vs fear media appeals in a referendum context. Journal of Political Marketing. DOI:10.1080/15377857.2021.1892900

Antonetti, P.; Baines, P. and Jain, S. (2018). The persuasiveness of guilt appeals over time: Pathways to delayed compliance. Journal of Business Research, 90, 4-15.

Pareek, B.; Ghosh, P.; Wilson, H.; Macdonald, E.; and Baines, P. (2018). A Bayesian zero-inflated dynamic multinomial choice model of media impact on voter choice using real-time experience tracking data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 113 (524), 1457-1475. DOI:10.1080/01621459.2017.1419134.

Baines, P. and Jones, N. (2018). Influence and interference in foreign elections: The evolution of its practice. The RUSI Journal, 163, 12-19.

Mortimore, R..; Baines, P.; Worcester, R.M. and Gill, M. (2017). Findings of the BPC/MRS enquiry into polling during the 2015 British General Election: The Ipsos MORI response and perspective. International Journal of Market Research, 59(2). (Winner of the IJMR Collaborative Research Award 2017).

Baines, P. (2017). Technological Impacts on market attitudes and behaviour. Psychology & Marketing, 34(4), 351-355.

Walker, L.; Baines, P., Dimitriu, R. and Macdonald, E. (2017). Antecedents of retweeting behaviour in a (political) marketing context. Psychology & Marketing, 34 (3), 275-293.


I am interested in supervising full- and part-time PhD research in the following areas:

  • Political marketing
  • Marketing communications


My teaching has previously encompassed undergraduate, postgraduate and post-experience levels, including full time and executive MBA teaching, in the UK, Canada, USA, Finland, Malaysia, Singapore, Sweden, Saudi Arabia and Cyprus across a number of aspects of marketing including marketing research, marketing strategy, political marketing, public relations, branding, and consumer behaviour. At ULSB, I teach on the following modules:

  • MSc Marketing: Principles of Marketing & Research Methods for Marketing
  • UG: Market Intelligence

Press and media

Selected media appearances

Broadcast appearance on GB News, with Gloria De Piero and Liam Halligan, on Government Xmas party and public opinion, 2.30pm, 8 December 2021.

Press mention, Rebecca Chimjeka, “Misinformation frustrates Covid fight”, Malawi News, Saturday August 21-27. (accessed 24 August 2021).

Broadcast appearance on GB News, with Simon McCoy and Alex Phillips, on Matt Hancock’s affair and public opinion, 5pm, 25 June 2021.

Appearance on Gem Radio, on resignation of government’s Director of Communications, 12 November 2020.

Press mention, “Businesses in Leicester set to benefit from support programme”, Labmate, 13 August 2020.

Press mention, Tom Pegden., “New lifeline for Leicestershire’s SMEs hit by Covid lockdown”, Business Live, 13 August 2020.

Press mention, Anon., “Covid-19 hit businesses to benefit from Leicester University’s expertise”, Business Link East Midlands, 5 August.

Appearance on Times Radio, with John Pienaar, on Russian interference in UK elections, Tuesday 21 July 2019.

Appearance on BBC Radio Leicester, with Ady Dayman on Russian interference in UK elections, Tuesday 21 July 2019.

Appearance on Indus News (Pakistan), Scope with Waqar Rizvi, on activities of the Henry Jackson Society, propaganda and lobbying, 16 July 2020. Retrieve Indus News (Pakistan) piece from YouTube



Administrative responsibilities

  • Deputy Dean - Strategic Projects
  • Associate Dean - Business and Civic Engagement

Media enquiries

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