People

Dr James M. Crick

Associate Professor of Marketing and Entrepreneurship

Profile

I am an Associate Professor of Marketing and Entrepreneurship at the University of Leicester and an Adjunct Professor of Entrepreneurial Marketing at the University of Ottawa. Prior to these roles, I have held faculty positions at different universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand.

Through these positions, I have been actively involved with a range of research, teaching, and administrative duties. Most recently, while at Loughborough University, I established and led the Wine Business Research Interest Group - which was comprised of 79 academics, practitioners, and PhD students from various countries.

I hold a BCom with a major in International Business and a minor in Management from Victoria University of Wellington, an MBS in Management from Massey University, a PhD in Entrepreneurial Marketing from Loughborough University, alongside a FHEA qualification in Entrepreneurial Marketing from Loughborough University. 

Research

My research interests are positioned at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface (also known as entrepreneurial marketing). My specific research areas include entrepreneurs’ internationalisation activities, collaborative strategies (e.g., coopetition), firms managing a market orientation and an entrepreneurial orientation, and owner-managers’ dynamic and evolving business models.

I have published in various “high-quality” journals, like Industrial Marketing Management, the Journal of Business Research, the International Marketing Review, the Journal of Rural Studies, the Journal of International Marketing, the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, and several more. I have written other research outputs (book chapters and viewpoints, conference papers, magazine articles, and practitioner-oriented reports).

I have generated (and/or have been part of research teams that have secured) a total of over £844,000 worth of research funding. Plus, I am an Associate Editor of the Journal of Strategic Marketing - which I undertake alongside other editorial board duties and ad-hoc reviewing for numerous journals. 

Publications

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My key publications (including some forthcoming journal papers) are outlined as follows. My Google Scholar page displays my wider published work (https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=fdR4kIIAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao).
Journal papers:
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Chaudhry, S. (2022). Inter-firm collaboration as a performance-enhancing survival strategy within the business models of ethnic minority-owned urban restaurants affected by COVID-19. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M. (2022). Does competitive aggressiveness negatively moderate the relationship between coopetition and customer satisfaction performance? Journal of Strategic Marketing (forthcoming).
Hamzah, M.I., Crick, J.M., Crick, D., Ali, S.A.M., and Yunus, N.M. (2022). The nature of the relationship between an entrepreneurial marketing orientation and small business growth: Evidence from Malaysia. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M. (2022). Don’t run before you can walk! The importance of fostering threshold capabilities in securing market-level survival. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). Revisiting the “concentration vs. spreading debate”: Perceived risk and strategic flexibility in decision-making regarding an unanticipated environmental market disruption. Journal of Strategic Marketing (forthcoming).
Karami, M., Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2022). Non-predictive decision-making, market-oriented behaviours, and smaller-sized firms’ performance. Journal of Strategic Marketing (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Peixinho, J.M. (2022). Does industry experience positively moderate the quadratic relationship between coopetition and financial performance? Evidence from the New Zealand wine sector. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., Karami, M., and Crick, D. (2022). Is it enough to be market-oriented? How coopetition and industry experience affect the relationship between a market orientation and customer satisfaction performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 100(1), pp. 62-75.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). Coopetition and international entrepreneurship: The influence of a competitor orientation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 28(3), pp. 801-828.
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Chaudhry, S. (2022). The dark-side of coopetition: It’s not what you say, but the way that you do it. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 30(1), pp. 22-44.
Crick, J.M., Karami, M., and Crick, D. (2021). The impact of the interaction between an entrepreneurial marketing orientation and coopetition on business performance. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(6), pp. 1423-1447.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Rising up to the challenge of our rivals: Unpacking the drivers and outcomes of coopetition activities. Industrial Marketing Management, 96(1), pp. 71-85.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Coopetition and family-owned wine producers. Journal of Business Research, 135(1), pp. 319-336.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Market-oriented activities and communal wine consumption events: Does coopetition make a difference? Journal of Wine Research, 32(3), pp. 161-187.
Crick, J.M. (2021). The dimensionality of the market orientation construct. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 29(4), pp. 281-300.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). The yin and yang nature of coopetition activities: Non-linear effects and the moderating role of competitive intensity for internationalised firms. International Marketing Review, 38(4), pp. 690-716.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Teaching marketing to non-marketing majors: Tools to enhance their engagement and academic performance. Education and Training, 63(6), pp. 833-851.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). The dark-side of coopetition: Influences on the paradoxical forces of cooperativeness and competitiveness across product-market strategies. Journal of Business Research, 122(1), pp. 226-240.
Crick, J.M. (2021). Unpacking the relationship between a coopetition-oriented mind-set and coopetition-oriented behaviours. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 36(1), pp. 400-410.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Internationalizing the coopetition construct: Quadratic effects on financial performance under different degrees of export intensity and an export geographical scope. Journal of International Marketing, 29(2), pp. 62-80.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Coopetition and sales performance: Evidence from non-mainstream sporting clubs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(1), pp. 123-147.
Crick, J.M. (2021). Qualitative research in marketing: What can academics do better? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 29(5), pp. 390-429.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2020). Coopetition and COVID-19: Collaborative business-to-business marketing strategies in a pandemic crisis. Industrial Marketing Management, 88(1), pp. 206-213.
Sraha, G., Sharma, R.R., Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2020). International experience, export commitment, distribution adaptation, and performance: A study of Ghanaian firms in B2B export markets. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(11), pp. 1715-1738.
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Chaudhry, S. (2020). Entrepreneurial marketing decision-making in rapidly-internationalising and de-internationalising start-up firms. Journal of Business Research, 113(1), pp. 158-167.
Crick, J.M. (2020). The dark-side of coopetition: When collaborating with competitors is harmful for company performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(2), pp. 318-337.
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Tebbett, N. (2020). Competitor orientation and value co-creation in sustaining rural New Zealand wine producers. Journal of Rural Studies, 73(1), pp. 122-134.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Developing and validating a multi-dimensional measure of coopetition. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 34(4), pp. 665-689.
Crick, J.M. (2019). Incorporating coopetition into the entrepreneurial marketing literature: Directions for future research. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 21(1), pp. 19-36.
Crick, J.M. (2019). Moderators affecting the relationship between coopetition and company performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 34(2), pp. 518-531.
Crick, J.M. (2018). Teaching marketing to non-marketers: Some experiences from New Zealand and the UK. Education and Training, 60(9), pp. 1070-1083.
Crick, J.M. (2018). Studying coopetition in a wine industry context: Directions for future research. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 30(3), pp. 366-371.
Crick, D., Chaudhry, S., and Crick, J.M. (2018). Risks/rewards and an evolving business model: A case study of a small lifestyle business in the UK tourism sector. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), pp. 143-165.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2018). Angel investors’ predictive and control funding criteria: The importance of evolving business models. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 20(1), pp. 34-56.
Crick, J.M. (2018). The facets, antecedents, and consequences of coopetition: An entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), pp. 253-272.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2016). The first export order: A marketing innovation revisited. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(2), pp. 77-89.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2016). Coopetition at the sports marketing/entrepreneurship interface: A case study of a Taekwondo organisation. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(2), pp. 169-187.
Crick, D., Chaudhry, S., and Crick, J.M. (2016). Trading in a competitive environment: South-Asian restaurants in the UK. Strategic Change: Briefings in Entrepreneurial Finance, 25(3), pp. 371-382.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2016). An appreciative inquiry into the first export order. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 19(1), pp. 84-100.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2016). Developing entrepreneurial resilience in the UK tourism sector. Strategic Change: Briefings in Entrepreneurial Finance, 25(3), pp. 315-325.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2015). Learning and decision-making in marketing planning: A study of New Zealand vineyards. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 33(5), pp. 707-732.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2014). The internationalization strategies of rapidly-internationalizing high-tech UK SMEs: Planned and unplanned activities. European Business Review, 26(5), pp. 421-448.
Book chapters and viewpoints:
 
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). Coopetition among under-resourced football clubs. In V. Ratten (ed.). Football Entrepreneurship, Routledge, Abingdon, United Kingdom (forthcoming).
Sraha, G., Crick, D., Sharma, R.R., and Crick, J.M. (2022). International entrepreneurship and the role of stakeholders: Ghanaian firms’ practices in export markets. In V. Jafari-Sadeghi., and L-P. Dana (eds.). Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Contexts, Behaviours, and Successful Entry, Routledge, Abingdon, United Kingdom (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). The multiple layers of coopetition and their link with sales performance: Insights from sporting clubs in New Zealand. In V. Ratten (ed.). Oceania Entrepreneurship, Palgrave Macmillan, London, United Kingdom, pp. 71-105.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Coopetition as an entrepreneurial strategy: Focus on the wine sector. In L-P. Dana (ed.). World Encyclopaedia of Entrepreneurship, second edition, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, United Kingdom, pp. 26-39.
Chaudhry, S., Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2019). Trade barriers and assistance requirements for South-Asian transnational entrepreneurs. In M.Y. Haddoud., A.E. Onjewu., and P. Jones (eds.). International Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Nature, Drivers, Barriers, and Determinants, Emerald Group Publishing, Bingley, United Kingdom, pp. 115-140.
Crick, J.M. (2019). Sponsorship in ITF Taekwon-Do. In C. Fill., and S. Turnbull. Marketing Communications: Touchpoints, Sharing, and Disruption, eighth edition, Pearson, Harlow, United Kingdom, pp. 493-494.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2018). “Lean start-up” practices: Initial internationalization and evolving business models. In L.C. Leonidou., C.S. Katsikeas., S. Samiee., and B. Aykol (eds.). Advances in Global Marketing: A Research Anthology, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 37-58.
Conference papers and presentations:
 
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). The role of coopetition in wine producers’ business-to-business strategies targeting Asian markets. Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group Asia Conference, Okinawa, Japan (forthcoming).
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2022). Digital start-ups: Stakeholders’ perceptions of key capabilities to facilitate enduring student entrepreneurship. Conference of Research in Entrepreneurship, Education, and Technology, Ottawa, Canada (forthcoming).
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2022). Revisiting the de- and re-internationalization strategies of start-up firms: A capabilities perspective. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). Coopetition and company performance: A multi-dimensional perspective. Global Research Conference on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Whistler, Canada (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). An empirical assessment of the COOP scale: Evidence from the Canadian wine industry. Academy of Wine Business Research Conference, Dijon, France (forthcoming).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2022). The influence of a competitor orientation on international entrepreneurs’ coopetition activities. Australia and New Zealand International Business Academy Conference, Wellington, New Zealand (held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Coopetition as an entrepreneurial marketing strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from the US wine industry. Pandemic Shock Consequences Conference, Poznan, Poland (held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2021). Re-internationalizing decision-making: International new ventures with highly-digitalized business models. International Conference on Digital, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Financing, Lyon, France (held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2020). Revisiting the “concentration vs. spreading debate” following an unanticipated environmental market disruption: Risks/rewards and strategic flexibility in decision-making regarding business models. International Conference on Marketing, Strategy, and Policy Research, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2020). Inter-firm collaboration as a performance-enhancing survival strategy within the business models of urban restaurants affected by COVID-19. International Conference on Marketing, Strategy, and Policy Research, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).
 
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Coopetition and performance in B2B marketing. Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Industry experience and the non-linear coopetition performance-enhancing relationship: Differences across product-market strategies. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Odense, Denmark.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2019). The re-internationalization decision in international new ventures. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Odense, Denmark.
 
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). How does industry experience affect the relationship between coopetition and company performance? An entrepreneurial marketing perspective. Academy of Marketing Conference, London, United Kingdom.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2019). Entrepreneurial marketing practices in re-internationalising firms. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, London, United Kingdom.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Rising up to the challenge of our rivals: Coopetition and market performance in the New Zealand wine industry. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, London, United Kingdom.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Implementing a coopetition-oriented mind-set and its relationship with sales performance among sports clubs. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, London, United Kingdom.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2019). The role of coopetition in brand strategies within rural wine clusters. International Consumer Brand Relationships Conference, Cancun, Mexico.
Crick, J.M., Dewsnap, B., Cadogan, J.W., and Souchon, A.L. (2019). Implementing the marketing concept through customer value-oriented functional resource investments. American Marketing Association Winter Academic Conference, Austin, United States.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2019). Coopetition in small, family-owned, rural New Zealand vineyards and the impact on stakeholders. Academy of Wine Business Research Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2018). The relationship between a coopetition-oriented corporate culture and organizational performance: Differences across domestic and international product-markets. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Halmstad, Sweden.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2018). The dark-side of coopetition-oriented business models: Entrepreneurial marketing strategies in the New Zealand wine industry. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, Boston, United States.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2017). Rapidly-internationalizing lean start-ups and their continuing overseas developmental path: Management teams’ international “mind-set” or “myth”. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Galway, Republic of Ireland.
Crick, J.M., Chaudhry, S., and Crick, D. (2017). Trading in a competitive environment: Portfolio entrepreneurship and the business models of South-Asian-owned retailers in the UK. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, San Francisco, United States.
Crick, D., Chaudhry, S., and Crick, J.M. (2017). Marketing planning and an evolving business model: A case study of small lifestyle businesses in the UK tourism sector. Academy of Marketing Conference, Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2017). An investigation into the decision-making criteria of angel investors. Canadian Council for Small Business & Entrepreneurship, Quebec City, Canada.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2017). Business models and the first export order in lean start-up UK firms. International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Bradshaw, R., and Crick, J.M. (2016). Start-ups and the role of the incubation unit. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology International Conference on Business Innovation, Rajamangala, Thailand.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2016). Coopetition and business models in the international wine sector. American Society for Competitiveness Conference, Washington D.C., United States.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2016). Initial internationalisation and business models in UK lean start-ups. Global Entrepreneurship Development Centre Conference, Kingston upon Thames, United Kingdom.
Crick, J.M., Crick, D., and Bradshaw, R. (2016). Coopetition in a competitive market: The case of the New Zealand wine industry. British Academy of Management Conference, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2016). Angel investors’ perspectives on funding digital international entrepreneurial start-ups. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Vaasa, Finland.
Crick, J.M., and Crick, D. (2016). Angel investors’ decision-making criteria and evolving business models: Implications for incubator managers and entrepreneurs. Global Research Symposium on Marketing and Entrepreneurship, San Diego, United States.
Kuntonbutr, C., Bradshaw, R., and Crick, J.M. (2016). Knowledge outsourcing: The role of innovation centres. Global Business and Economics Conference, Bangkok, Thailand.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2015). Lean start-ups’ international entrepreneurial planning and the first export order. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, London, United Kingdom.
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2015). Competition and collaboration in the New Zealand wine sector: Domestic and international entrepreneurship. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
Crick, D., Chaudhry, S., and Crick, J.M. (2014). Perceived difficulties in internationalisation: A study of international and transnational entrepreneurs. McGill International Entrepreneurship Conference, Santiago, Chile.
 
Crick, D., and Crick, J.M. (2012). Re-orientating entrepreneurial strategies in a competitive environment: The case of the New Zealand wine industry. International Council for Small Business Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
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Supervision

Alongside teaching several modules, I have supervised projects, dissertations, and theses at a variety of levels (undergraduate, postgraduate, executive education, and doctoral). I am interested in supervising “high-calibre” students in the broader area of entrepreneurial marketing, including (but not limited to) coopetition strategies, internationalisation activities, and the interplay between a market orientation and an entrepreneurial orientation.

Moreover, I am keen on supervising “high-level” students with different methodological focuses (quantitative and/or qualitative research designs). Please contact me to explore any of these potential topics in more depth. 

Teaching

At the University of Leicester, I currently teach a module called Consultancy Challenge (undergraduate). I have also taught components of certain postgraduate modules. Additionally, I deliver classes as part of my Adjunct Professor role at the University of Ottawa.

Press and media

As my core research areas surround entrepreneurial marketing, I am happy to be contacted about issues, such as organisations (small and large) collaborating with their competitors, entrepreneurs’ internationalisation strategies, and owner-managers pivoting their business models to respond to changes within their sectors.

Activities

I am a full-member of the Academy of Marketing, the British Academy of Management, and the Academy of Marketing Science. Additionally, I regularly attend domestic and international events in the area of entrepreneurial marketing. This extends to me being affiliated with various research centres, academic conferences, and beyond in my field.

Awards

As some illustrations of my academic awards and prizes, in 2017, I won the “Best Doctoral Paper Award” at the Academy of Marketing Conference (hosted by the University of Hull). In 2019, I won the “Dean’s Award for Early Career Researcher of the Year” in the School of Business and Economics (at Loughborough University). In 2019, I won the best paper in the Business-to-Business Marketing Track at the Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (hosted by Victoria University of Wellington). In 2020, I won the best paper in the Tourism and Hospitality Marketing Track at the International Conference on Marketing Strategy and Policy Research (hosted by Newcastle University, but was held online due to the COVID-19 pandemic).

In 2021, my co-authored paper in Industrial Marketing Management won the “Outstanding Article Award”, namely, the best paper published in this outlet between 2016 and 2020. This article focused on how firms (small and large) have implementing coopetition strategies to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. This article was downloaded 20,706 times in approximately seven months (with thousands more downloads after the award was presented). 

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