Air pollution alone is thought to be responsible for 3.2 million deaths per year, and it is estimated that over 80% of people living in urban areas are exposed to air quality levels that exceed safe limits. In low-income countries, this situation is even more pressing with 98% of cities failing to meet World Health Organisation air quality standards. With such concerning figures, understanding the impact of man-made pollutants on the environment has never been more essential when it comes to improving the health of populations across the world
Paul Monks, Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Earth Observation Science, has been driving change in our understanding of air quality and pollution at Leicester ever since joining the University in 1996, with wide-ranging research that covers air quality, atmospheric composition and climate change. His highly-valued expertise has seen him take on managerial as well as academic responsibilities, joining the University’s Executive Board as Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Head of the College of Science and Engineering.
In October 2020, Professor Monks joined the UK Government’s Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) as its new Chief Scientific Advisor, whilst maintaining his research work at Leicester.
An upside to lockdown?
Professor Monks’ expertise in air quality, air pollution and measurement revealed the unprecedented effect of the social changes during the COVID-19 outbreak on air pollution.
Describing the coronavirus pandemic as the largest experiment ever into global air quality, Professor Monks studied satellite imagery from the European Space Agency (ESA) that showed the drastic differences between air pollution before and after the outbreak.
Levels of nitrogen dioxide significantly dropped after industrial and transport emissions were vastly reduced during lockdown periods. Measurements from ESA’s Sentinel-5P satellite showed that over a period of six weeks, levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over cities and industrial areas in Asia and Europe were lower than in the same period last year – by as much as 40%.
In the UK, just two weeks into the nationwide lockdown in March 2020, NO2 pollution in some cities fell by as much as 60% compared to the same period in 2019, with roadside monitors already showing significantly reduced levels of pollution at hotspots such as Marylebone in London. NASA revealed that NO2 pollution over New York and other major metropolitan areas in the northeastern USA was 30% lower in March 2020, compared to the monthly average from 2015 to 2019.
Professor Monks says: “We are now, inadvertently, conducting the largest-scale experiment ever seen. This might give us some hope from something so clearly terrible - we can see what could be achieved in terms of a low pollution future. Road traffic accounts for about up to 80% of nitrogen oxide emissions in cities in the UK. It seems entirely probable that a reduction in air pollution will be beneficial to people in susceptible categories, such as asthma sufferers."