Archaeology and Ancient History

SEM Laboratory

The laboratory is home to a range of analytical and imaging techniques, these include Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Fluorescence (µXRF) detectors, Benchtop and Handheld XRF and Raman Spectroscopy. 

The SEM facility that can be used correlatively with the light microscopes in the School. The µXRF data from the Bruker accessories can also be used collaboratively with the Benchtop XRF.

  • Carl Zeiss EVO 25 – equipped with Bruker EDS and µXRF. Carl Zeiss EVO 25The SEM has a large chamber which can accommodate large samples (bones, rocks, footwear etc), and can analyse samples in both high vacuum and variable pressure. The flexibility of the vacuum modes allows delicate samples to be analysed, as they do not need to be exposed to a high vacuum. The SEM has secondary electron detectors allowing topographical (3D) imaging and back scattered electron detector allowing compositional imaging. The SEM is fitted with Bruker EDS and µXRF detectors, allowing the determination and quantification of elemental composition.
  • Olympus Vanta Portable XRF - The Vanta Portable XRF allows to analyse samples outside the ‘lab’ with both handheld and workstation modes. The Vanta comes with pre-set methods for geological, alloy and gold methods. With users able to target regions of interest and optimise the conditions.
  • Bruker M4 Tornado Benchtop XRF - The M4 TORNADO allows sample characterization using small-spot micro-X-ray fluorescence. Bruker M4 Tornado Benchtop XRFThis gives users information about composition and element distribution, from the surface and below the surface. It is optimized for high-speed analyses of points, lines and 2D area scans (element mapping) of a variety of samples. 
  • In house-built Raman Spectrometer with the ability to change lasers. Raman spectroscopy is non-destructive technique which allows users to identify the chemical structure of a sample.

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